Integumentary Disorders Q 78 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Friday 1 April 2022

Integumentary Disorders Q 78

A female client with a severe staphylococcal infection is receiving the aminoglycoside gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin) by the I.V. route. The nurse should assess the client for which adverse reaction to this drug?
    A. Aplastic anemia
    B. Ototoxicity
    C. Cardiac arrhythmias
    D. Seizures

Correct Answer: B. Ototoxicity

The most significant adverse reactions to gentamicin and other aminoglycosides are ototoxicity (indicated by vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (indicated by urinary cells or casts, oliguria, proteinuria, and reduced creatinine clearance). These adverse reactions are most common in elderly and dehydrated clients, those with renal impairment, and those receiving concomitant therapy with another potentially ototoxic or nephrotoxic drug. Gentamicin isn’t associated with aplastic anemia, cardiac arrhythmias, or seizures.

Option A: Aplastic anemia is not associated with gentamicin. The gentamicin is prone to accumulate in the renal proximal tubular cells and can cause damage. Hence, mild proteinuria and reduction of the glomerular filtration rate are potential consequences of gentamicin use, achieving 14% of gentamicin users in a review
Option C: Cardiac arrhythmias are not an adverse effect of Gentamicin. Characteristically, gentamicin reaches high concentrations in the renal cortex and the inner ear. The latter may be injured, leading to auditory and, especially, vestibular dysfunction. The first manifestation of cochlear damage is often high-pitched tinnitus, which may last a few weeks after the gentamicin is interrupted.
Option D: Seizures are not an adverse effect of Gentamicin. The neuromuscular blockade, although a rare event, is a serious adverse effect of virtually all aminoglycosides. The known risk factors are concurrent conditions (e.g., myasthenia gravis) or medications (e.g., vecuronium) that interfere with the neuromuscular junction.

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