Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 163 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Wednesday 13 April 2022

Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 163

Which of the following factors can cause hepatitis A?
    A. Contact with infected blood.
    B. Blood transfusions with infected blood.
    C. Eating contaminated shellfish.
    D. Sexual contact with an infected person.

Correct Answer: C. Eating contaminated shellfish.

Hepatitis A can be caused by consuming contaminated water, milk, or food — especially shellfish from contaminated water. The most common mode of transmission of hepatitis A is via the fecal-oral route from contact with food, water, or objects contaminated by fecal matter from an infected individual. It is more commonly encountered in developing countries where due to poverty and lack of sanitation, there is a higher chance of fecal-oral spread.

Option A: Hepatitis B is caused by blood and sexual contact with an infected person. Transfusion of blood and blood products, injection drug use with shared needles, needlesticks, or wounds caused by other instruments in healthcare workers and hemodialysis are all examples of parenteral and percutaneous exposures, but parenteral mode remains the dominant mode of transmission both globally and in the United States.
Option B: Hepatitis C is usually caused by contact with infected blood, including receiving blood transfusions. Transmission can be parenteral, perinatal, and sexual, with the most common mode being the sharing of contaminated needles among IV drug users. Also, other high-risk groups include people who require frequent blood transfusions and organ transplantation of organs from infected donors.
Option D: Hepatitis B and C can be caused by sexual contact with an infected person. Intravenous drug users, men who have sex with men, healthcare workers with exposure to infected body fluids, patients who require frequent and multiple blood transfusions, people who have multiple sexual partners, prisoners, partners of hepatitis B virus carriers, and persons born in endemic areas are all at high risk for hepatitis B virus infection.

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