Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 161 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Wednesday, 13 April 2022

Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 161

A nursing intervention for a patient with hepatitis B would include which of the following types of isolation.
    A. Universal precautions
    B. Blood transfusions
    C. Enteric isolation
    D. Strict isolation

Correct Answer: A. Universal precautions

Universal precautions are indicated for the patient with hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is contracted via blood and blood products, body secretions, and punctures from contaminated needles. Universal precautions apply to blood and to other body fluids containing visible blood. Occupational transmission of HIV and HBV to healthcare workers by blood is documented. Blood is the single most important source of HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens in the occupational setting.

Option B: Currently, guidelines for transfusion of red blood cells (RBC), generally follow a restrictive threshold. While there is some variation in the number for the threshold, 7 g/dL is an agreed-upon value for asymptomatic healthy patients. Transfusion may also be indicated in patients with active or acute bleeding as well as in patients with symptoms related to anemia (for example, tachycardia, weakness, dyspnea on exertion) and hemoglobin less than 8 g/dL.
Option C: Enteric precautions are taken to prevent infections that are transmitted primarily by direct or indirect contact with fecal material. They’re indicated for patients with known or suspected infectious diarrhea or gastroenteritis. Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea.
Option D: Strict isolation includes suspected highly infectious and transmissible virulent and pathogenic microbes, highly resistant bacterial strains, and agents that are not accepted in any form of distribution in society or in the environment. Examples are completely resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, viral hemorrhagic fevers like Ebola and Lassa, pandemic severe influenza, and coronavirus like SARS, MERS, etc.

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