Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 70 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Friday 22 April 2022

Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 70

A client is admitted to the hospital with acute bronchitis. While taking the client’s VS, the nurse notices he has an irregular pulse. The nurse understands that cardiac arrhythmias in chronic respiratory distress are usually the result of:
     A. Respiratory acidosis
     B. A build-up of carbon dioxide
     C. A build-up of oxygen without adequate expelling of carbon dioxide.
     D. An acute respiratory infection.

Correct Answer: B. A build-up of carbon dioxide.

The arrhythmias are caused by a build-up of carbon dioxide and not enough oxygen so that the heart is in a constant state of hypoxia. The majority of arrhythmias observed in these patients appeared to take the form of premature ventricular and/or supraventricular beats and less frequently of atrial fibrillation and/or attacks of supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia. Cardiac rhythm alterations were observed using Holter monitoring in 70-90% of patients. No cardiac rhythm disorder is specific to this pathological condition.

Option A: The compensation to respiratory acidosis consists in a secondary increase in bicarbonate concentration, and the arterial blood gas analysis is characterized by a reduced pH, increased pCO2 (initial variation), and increased bicarbonate levels (compensatory response).
Option C: Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis based on history, past medical history, lung exam, and other physical findings. Oxygen saturation plays an important role in judging the severity of the disease along with the pulse rate, temperature, and respiratory rate.
Option D: Acute bronchitis is the result of acute inflammation of the bronchi secondary to various triggers, most commonly viral infection, allergens, pollutants, etc. Inflammation of the bronchial wall leads to mucosal thickening, epithelial-cell desquamation, and denudation of the basement membrane. At times, a viral upper respiratory infection can progress to infection of the lower respiratory tract resulting in acute bronchitis.

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