Urinary Disorders Q 117 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Monday 4 April 2022

Urinary Disorders Q 117

What change indicates recovery in a patient with nephrotic syndrome?
    A. Disappearance of protein from the urine.
    B. Decrease in blood pressure to normal.
    C. Increase in serum lipid levels.
    D. Gain in body weight.

Correct Answer: A. Disappearance of protein from the urine.

With nephrotic syndrome, the glomerular basement membrane of the kidney becomes more porous, leading to loss of protein in the urine. As the patient recovers, less protein is found in the urine. Albumin is a protein that acts like a sponge, drawing extra fluid from the body into the bloodstream where it remains until removed by the kidneys. When albumin leaks into the urine, the blood loses its capacity to absorb extra fluid from the body, causing edema.

Option B: Nephrotic syndrome results from a problem with the kidneys’ filters, called glomeruli. Glomeruli are tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that remove wastes and excess fluids from the blood and send them to the bladder as urine.
Option C: As blood passes through healthy kidneys, the glomeruli filter out the waste products and allow the blood to retain cells and proteins the body needs. However, proteins from the blood, such as albumin, can leak into the urine when the glomeruli are damaged. In nephrotic syndrome, damaged glomeruli allow 3 grams or more of protein to leak into the urine when measured over a 24-hour period, which is more than 20 times the amount that healthy glomeruli allow.
Option D: The loss of different proteins from the body can lead to a variety of complications in people with nephrotic syndrome. Blood clots can form when proteins that normally prevent them are lost through the urine. Blood clots can block the flow of blood and oxygen through a blood vessel.

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