Urinary Disorders Q 105 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Tuesday, 5 April 2022

Urinary Disorders Q 105

Your patient returns from the operating room after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Which symptom is a sign of acute renal failure?
    A. Anuria
    B. Diarrhea
    C. Oliguria
    D. Vomiting

Correct Answer: C. Oliguria

Urine output less than 50ml in 24 hours signifies oliguria, an early sign of renal failure. In patients with acute oliguria, one of the most common functional derangements that are observed is the sudden fall in the GRF, leading to acute renal failure. It results in rapid increment in plasma urea and creatinine levels, metabolic acidosis with hyperkalemia, other electrolyte abnormalities, and volume overload.

Option A: Anuria is uncommon except in obstructive renal disorders. Anuria is non-passage of urine, in practice is defined as the passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in a day. Anuria is often caused by a failure in the function of the kidneys. It may also occur because of some severe obstruction like kidney stones or tumors.
Option B: Acute diarrhea is defined as an episode lasting less than 2 weeks. Infection most commonly causes acute diarrhea. Most cases are the result of a viral infection, and the course is self-limited. Chronic diarrhea is defined as a duration lasting longer than 4 weeks and tends to be non-infectious. Common causes include malabsorption, inflammatory bowel disease, and medication side effects.
Option D: When loss of kidney function is mild or moderately severe, the kidneys cannot absorb water from the urine to reduce the volume of urine and concentrate it. Later, the kidneys have less ability to excrete the acids normally produced by the body and the blood becomes more acidic, a condition called acidosis.

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