Pneumonia Q 43 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Wednesday 20 April 2022

Pneumonia Q 43

Which of the following best describes pleural effusion?
     A. The collapse of alveoli.
     B. The collapse of bronchiole.
     C. The fluid in the alveolar space.
     D. The accumulation of fluid between the linings of the pleural space.

Correct Answer: D. The accumulation of fluid between the linings of the pleural space.

The pleural fluid normally seeps continually into the pleural space from the capillaries lining the parietal pleura and is reabsorbed by the visceral pleural capillaries and lymphatics. Any condition that interferes with either the secretion or drainage of this fluid will lead to a pleural effusion.

Option A: The word “atelectasis” is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning “imperfect” and “expansion” respectively. It results from the partial or complete, reversible collapse of the small airways leading to an impaired exchange of CO2 and O2 – i.e., intrapulmonary shunt.
Option B: Bronchomalacia is a term for weak cartilage in the walls of the bronchial tubes, often occurring in children under a day. Bronchomalacia means ‘floppiness’ of some part of the bronchi. Patients present with noisy breathing and/or wheezing. There is collapse of a main stem bronchus on exhalation.
Option C: The fluid within the alveoli, often referred to as alveolar fluid, is part of the alveolar surface network (Scarpelli, 2003). This network within the alveoli can be envisaged as a foam made of surfactant and water. The foam forms a network within the alveoli and has a gas: fluid volume ratio of 900:1 (Scarpelli, 2003).

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