Neurological Disorders Q 54 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Tuesday, 19 April 2022

Neurological Disorders Q 54

Which of the following would lead the nurse to suspect that a child with meningitis has developed disseminated intravascular coagulation?
     A. Hemorrhagic skin rash
     B. Edema
     C. Cyanosis
     D. Dyspnea on exertion

Correct Answer: A. Hemorrhagic skin rash

DIC is characterized by skin petechiae and a purpuric skin rash caused by spontaneous bleeding into the tissues. An abnormal coagulation phenomenon causes the condition. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) can be defined as a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clotting and compromised blood flow, ultimately resulting in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome or MODS. As this process begins consuming clotting factors and platelets in a positive feedback loop, hemorrhage can ensue, which may be the presenting symptom of a patient with DIC.

Option B: Increased intracranial pressure from cerebral edema caused by increased intracellular fluid in the brain. Several factors are involved in the development of cerebral edema: increased blood-brain barrier permeability, cytotoxicity from cytokines, immune cells, and bacteria.
Option C: Cyanosis, broadly speaking, is caused by disorders of deoxygenated hemoglobin and disorders of abnormal hemoglobin. Oxygen might not reach hemoglobin in an adequate or sufficient amount as a result of conditions affecting the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, and the central nervous system.
Option D: Dyspnea on exertion is a symptom of various diseases rather than a disease itself. As such, its etiology can be designated as arising from two primary organ systems: the respiratory system and the cardiac system. Other systemic illnesses may be the culprit as well as a combination of different etiologies.

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