Neurological Disorders Q 23 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Tuesday 19 April 2022

Neurological Disorders Q 23

The nurse is monitoring a male client for adverse reactions to atropine sulfate (Atropine Care) eyedrops. Systemic absorption of atropine sulfate through the conjunctiva can cause which adverse reaction?
     A. Tachycardia
     B. Increased salivation
     C. Hypotension
     D. Apnea

Correct Answer: A. Tachycardia

Systemic absorption of atropine sulfate can cause tachycardia, palpitations, flushing, dry skin, ataxia, and confusion. To minimize systemic absorption, the client should apply digital pressure over the punctum at the inner canthus for 2 to 3 minutes after instilling the drops. Tachycardia is the most common side effect; titrate dose to effect when treating bradyarrhythmia in patients with coronary artery disease. Atropine may precipitate acute angle glaucoma, pyloric obstruction, urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, or viscid plugs in patients with chronic lung diseases.

Option B: The drug also may cause dry mouth. The most common adverse effects are related to the drug’s antimuscarinic properties, including xerostomia, blurred vision, photophobia, tachycardia, flushing, and hot skin. Constipation, difficulty with urination, and anhidrosis can occur, especially in at-risk populations (most notably, the elderly).
Option C: Atropine is an antimuscarinic that works through competitive inhibition of postganglionic acetylcholine receptors and direct vagolytic action, which leads to parasympathetic inhibition of the acetylcholine receptors in smooth muscle. The end effect of increased parasympathetic inhibition allows for preexisting sympathetic stimulation to predominate, creating increased cardiac output and other associated antimuscarinic side effects as described herein.
Option D: It isn’t known to cause apnea. Overdose can lead to increased antimuscarinic side effects presenting with dilated pupils, warm, dry skin, tachycardia, tremor, ataxia, delirium, and coma. In extreme toxicity, circulatory collapse secondary to respiratory failure may occur after paralysis and coma. Ten milligrams or less may be fatal to a child, while there is no known adult lethal dose.

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