Heart Failure & Valvular Diseases Q 14 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Thursday 28 April 2022

Heart Failure & Valvular Diseases Q 14

Which of the following heart muscle diseases is unrelated to other cardiovascular diseases?
     A. Cardiomyopathy
     B. Coronary artery disease
     C. Myocardial infarction
     D. Pericardial effusion

Correct Answer: A. Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy isn’t usually related to an underlying heart disease such as atherosclerosis. The etiology in most cases is unknown. Although most cases are idiopathic, a number of conditions (e.g. coronary artery disease, wet beriberi), infections (e.g., Coxsackie B virus, Chagas disease), and substances (e.g. heavy drinking,c cocaine) have been identified as causes.

Option B: The hallmark of the pathophysiology of CAD is the development of atherosclerotic plaque. Plaque is a build-up of fatty material that narrows the vessel lumen and impedes the blood flow. Growth factors released activate smooth muscles, which also take up oxidized LDL particles and collagen and deposit along with activated macrophages and increase the population of foam cells. This process leads to the formation of subendothelial plaque.
Option C: MI is directly related to atherosclerosis. Smoking and abnormal apolipoprotein ratio showed the strongest association with acute myocardial infarction. The increased risk associated with diabetes and hypertension were found to be higher in women, and the protective effect of exercise and alcohol was also found to be higher in women.
Option D: Pericardial effusion is the escape of fluid into the pericardial sac, a condition associated with pericarditis and advanced heart failure. The fluid accumulation increases pressure in the pericardial sac leading to the compression of the heart, especially the right heart due to a thinner wall. Impaired diastolic filling of the right heart causes venous congestion.

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