Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 284 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
Get GK Updates on WhatsApp

Post Top Ad

Monday 11 April 2022

Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 284

A client presents to the emergency room, reporting that he has been vomiting every 30 to 40 minutes for the past 8 hours. Frequent vomiting puts him at risk for which of the following?
    A. Metabolic acidosis with hyperkalemia
    B. Metabolic acidosis with hypokalemia
    C. Metabolic alkalosis with hyperkalemia
    D. Metabolic alkalosis with hypokalemia

Correct Answer: D. Metabolic alkalosis with hypokalemia

Gastric acid contains large amounts of potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ions. Excessive loss of these substances, such as from vomiting, can lead to metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia. Vomiting or nasogastric (NG) suction generates metabolic alkalosis by the loss of gastric secretions, which are rich in hydrochloric acid (HCl). Whenever a hydrogen ion is excreted, a bicarbonate ion is gained in the extracellular space.

Option A: Hyperkalemia can be the direct cause of metabolic acidosis from its effects on multiple components of renal ammonia metabolism. The first major finding in these studies is that hyperkalemia itself causes reversible metabolic acidosis by inhibiting ammonia excretion.
Option B: The most common cause for hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis is GI loss (eg, diarrhea, laxative use). Other less common etiologies include renal loss of potassium secondary to RTA or salt-wasting nephropathy. The urine pH, the urine AG, and the urinary K+ concentration can distinguish these conditions.
Option C: The first clue to metabolic alkalosis is often an elevated bicarbonate concentration that is observed when serum electrolyte measurements are obtained. Remember that an elevated serum bicarbonate concentration may also be observed as a compensatory response to primary respiratory acidosis. However, a bicarbonate concentration greater than 35 mEq/L is almost always caused by metabolic alkalosis.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Post Top Ad