Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 213 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Tuesday 12 April 2022

Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 213

The nurse would teach patients that antacids are effective in the treatment of hyperacidity because they:
    A. Neutralize gastric acid.
    B. Decrease stomach motility.
    C. Decrease gastric pH.
    D. Decrease duodenal pH.

Correct Answer: A. Neutralize gastric acid

Antacids work by neutralizing gastric acid, which would cause an increase in pH. Currently, antacid use is restricted to the relief of mild intermittent gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated with heartburn. The estimated prevalence of heartburn at least once per week in North America ranges from 18% to 28%, with 25% of adults reporting heartburn daily.

Option B: Antacids do not affect gastric motility. Antacids are a combination of various compounds with various salts of calcium, magnesium, and aluminum as active ingredients. The antacids act by neutralizing the acid in the stomach and by inhibiting pepsin, which is a proteolytic enzyme. Each of these cationic salts has a characteristic pharmacological property that determines its clinical use.
Option C: The formulation of aluminum hydrochloride and water results in the neutralization of the acid in the stomach. It is also known to inhibit pepsin activity. Aluminum hydroxide is complexed with a sulfated polysaccharide sucrose octasulfate to form sucralfate. This complex does not have a significant buffering action against the acid or has no effect on the pepsin secretion and does not alter the gastric acid production in any way.
Option D: Calcium salts neutralize gastric acidity resulting in increased gastric and duodenal bulb pH; they additionally inhibit the proteolytic activity of pepsin if the pH is greater than 4 and increase lower esophageal sphincter tone. The calcium released from calcium carbonate is known to increase peristalsis in the esophagus, pushing the acid into the stomach and providing relief from symptoms of heartburn.

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