Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 121 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Thursday 14 April 2022

Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 121

The nurse is monitoring a female client receiving paregoric to treat diarrhea for drug interactions. Which drugs can produce additive constipation when given with an opium preparation?
    A. Antiarrhythmic drugs
    B. Anticholinergic drugs
    C. Anticoagulant drugs
    D. Antihypertensive drugs

Correct Answer: B. Anticholinergic drugs

Paregoric has an additive effect of constipation when used with anticholinergic drugs. The opiate anhydrous morphine, which is contained in paregoric, can decrease motility more than loperamide or the combination of diphenoxylate and atropine can. Antiarrhythmics, anticoagulants, and antihypertensives aren’t known to interact with paregoric.

Option A: Of the Class III antiarrhythmics, amiodarone is involved in a significant number of interactions since it is a potent inhibitor of several cytochrome P450 enzymes. It can significantly impair the metabolism of digoxin, theophylline and warfarin. Dosages of digoxin and warfarin should empirically be decreased by one-half when amiodarone therapy is added.
Option C: The anticoagulant effect of warfarin is inhibited by drugs like barbiturates, rifampin, azathioprine, and carbamazepine, which increase its clearance by inducing hepatic metabolism. Azathioprine also reduces the anticoagulant effect of warfarin, presumably through a potentiating effect on hepatic clearance.
Option D: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can induce an increase in blood pressure (BP) and may potentially reduce the efficacy of several antihypertensive drugs. Probably the main mechanism of action is inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis since NSAIDs have a higher propensity to increase BP as the regulation of BP (and renal function) is more PG-dependent and to interact with drugs (diuretics, beta-blockers, and ACE inhibitors) that may act through the increase of PG formation.

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