Endocrine System Disorders Q 38 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Saturday 9 April 2022

Endocrine System Disorders Q 38

Nurse Wayne is aware that a positive Chvostek’s sign indicates?
    A. Hypocalcemia
    B. Hyponatremia
    C. Hypokalemia
    D. Hypermagnesemia

Correct Answer: A. Hypocalcemia

Chvostek’s sign is elicited by tapping the client’s face lightly over the facial nerve, just below the temple. If the client’s facial muscles twitch, it indicates hypocalcemia. Chvostek’s sign is another manifestation of heightened neuromuscular excitability. It is the spasm of facial muscles in response to tapping the facial nerve near the angle of the jaw.

Option B: Hyponatremia is indicated by weight loss, abdominal cramping, muscle weakness, headache, and postural hypotension. Symptoms depend upon the degree and chronicity of hyponatremia. Patients with mild-to-moderate hyponatremia (greater than 120 mEq/L) or gradual decrease in sodium (greater than 48 hours) have minimal symptoms. Patients with severe hyponatremia (less than 120 mEq/L) or rapid decrease in sodium levels have multiple varied symptoms.
Option C: Hypokalemia causes paralytic ileus and muscle weakness. Significant muscle weakness occurs at serum potassium levels below 2.5 mmol/L but can occur at higher levels if the onset is acute. Similar to the weakness associated with hyperkalemia, the pattern is ascending in nature affecting the lower extremities, progressing to involve the trunk and upper extremities and potentially advancing to paralysis.
Option D: Clients with hypermagnesemia exhibit a loss of deep tendon reflexes, coma, or cardiac arrest. The most frequent symptoms and signs may include weakness, nausea, dizziness, and confusion (less than 7.0 mg/dL). Increasing values (7 to 12 mg/dL) induce decreased reflexes, worsening confusional state, drowsiness, bladder paralysis, flushing, headache, and constipation. A slight reduction in blood pressure and blurred vision caused by diminished accommodation and convergence can manifest.

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