Diabetes Mellitus Q 90 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Thursday, 7 April 2022

Diabetes Mellitus Q 90

Dr. Hugo has prescribed sulfonylureas for Rebecca in the management of diabetes mellitus type 2. As a nurse, you know that the primary purpose of sulfonylureas, such as long-acting glyburide (Micronase), is to:
    A. Induce hypoglycemia by decreasing insulin sensitivity.
    B. Improve insulin sensitivity and decrease hyperglycemia.
    C. Stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas to secrete insulin.
    D. Decrease insulin sensitivity by enhancing glucose uptake.

Correct Answer: C. Stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas to secrete insulin.

Sulfonylureas such as glyburide are used only with patients who have some remaining pancreatic-beta cell function. These drugs stimulate insulin secretion, which reduces liver glucose output and increases cell uptake of glucose, enhancing the number of and sensitivity of cell receptor sites for interaction with insulin.

Option A: Medications that reduce insulin resistance (insulin-sensitizing and antihyperglycemic effects) include metformin and thiazolidinediones. Metformin is a biguanide; it reduces hepatic glucose output and increases the uptake in the peripheral tissues (muscle and adipocytes).
Option B: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are insulin sensitizers that act on intracellular metabolic pathways to enhance insulin action and increase insulin sensitivity in critical tissues. TZDs also increases adiponectin levels, decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis, and increase insulin-dependent glucose uptake in muscle and fat. Adiponectin, a cytokine secreted by fat tissue, increases insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid oxidation increases with TZD therapy.
Option D: Metformin exerts its glucose-lowering effect by suppressing gluconeogenesis in the liver and facilitating glucose uptake and use by peripheral tissues. Decreased glucose uptake may result from suppressed insulin signaling or impaired glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 trafficking.

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