Diabetes Mellitus Q 55 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Thursday 7 April 2022

Diabetes Mellitus Q 55

At the time Cherrie Ann found out that the symptoms of diabetes were caused by high levels of blood glucose, she decided to break the habit of eating carbohydrates. With this, the nurse would be aware that the client might develop which of the following complications?
    A. Retinopathy
    B. Atherosclerosis
    C. Glycosuria
    D. Acidosis

Correct Answer: D. Acidosis

When a client’s carbohydrate consumption is inadequate, ketones are produced from the breakdown of fat. These ketones lower the pH of the blood, potentially causing acidosis that can lead to a diabetic coma. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by hyperglycemia, acidosis, and ketonemia. It is a life-threatening complication of diabetes and typically seen in patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus, though it may also occur in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

Option A: Diabetic retinopathy affects people with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. The propensity of developing diabetic retinopathy is directly proportional to the age of the patient and duration of diabetes as well as with poor glycemic control and fluctuating blood pressure level.
Option B: Atherosclerosis mainly develops through the continuous process of arterial wall lesions due to lipid retention by trapping in the intima by a matrix such as proteoglycans resulting in a modification which, in turn, aggravates chronic inflammation at vulnerable sites in the arteries and plays an important role at all phases of the atherogenic progression.
Option C: Glycosuria is a term that defines the presence of reducing sugars in the urine, such as glucose, galactose, lactose, fructose, etc. It can happen due to elevated plasma glucose as in diabetes mellitus or when the ability of the tubule to absorb glucose is impaired, e.g. Fanconi syndrome with impairment in the absorption of phosphate, amino acids, or isolated glycosuria as an inherited disorder termed Familial Renal glucosuria.

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