Diabetes Mellitus Q 44 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Friday 8 April 2022

Diabetes Mellitus Q 44

The nurse knows that glucagon may be given in the treatment of hypoglycemia because it:
    A. Inhibits gluconeogenesis
    B. Stimulates the release of insulin
    C. Increases blood glucose levels
    D. Provides more storage of glucose.

Correct Answer: C. Increases blood glucose levels

Glucagon, an insulin antagonist produced by the alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans, leads to the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver. Glucagon is a polypeptide hormone commonly used in the treatment of severe hypoglycemia with FDA approval for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia and as a diagnostic aid in imaging of the GI tract.

Option A: Glucagon binds G-coupled surface receptors found throughout the body in varying concentrations; binding to the glucagon receptors in the liver, GI tract, heart, pancreas, fat, adrenal glands, and kidneys activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn raises cAMP levels. cAMP stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, resulting in the release of glucose, primarily from liver glycogen stores.
Option B: Insulin secretion is governed by the interaction of nutrients, hormones, and the autonomic nervous system. Glucose, as well as certain other sugars metabolized by islets, stimulates insulin release.
Option D: Glucose is the main source of fuel for our cells. When the body doesn’t need to use glucose for energy, it stores it in the liver and muscles. This stored form of glucose is made up of many connected glucose molecules and is called glycogen.

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