Diabetes Mellitus Q 41 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Friday 8 April 2022

Diabetes Mellitus Q 41

A clinical instructor teaches a class for the public about diabetes mellitus. Which individual does the nurse assess as being at the highest risk for developing diabetes?
    A. The 50-year-old client who does not get any physical exercise
    B. The 56-year-old client who drinks three glasses of wine each evening
    C. The 42-year-old client who is 50 pounds overweight
    D. The 38-year-old client who smokes one pack of cigarettes per day

Correct Answer: C. The 42-year-old client who is 50 pounds overweight

Obesity increases the likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus due to the overstimulation of the endocrine system. Obesity is believed to account for 80-85% of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while recent research suggests that obese people are up to 80 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those with a BMI of less than 22.

Option A: Exercise is important, but lack of exercise is not as big a risk factor as obesity. Scientists in the United States have found that not taking part in much physical activity could be the primary cause of chronic conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and fatty liver disease, and also that taking regular exercise may not actually help people who are sedentary.
Option B: Consuming alcohol is associated with liver disease but is not as high a risk factor for diabetes as obesity. While moderate amounts of alcohol may cause blood sugar to rise, excess alcohol can actually decrease the blood sugar level — sometimes causing it to drop into dangerous levels, especially for people with type 1 diabetes. Beer and sweet wine contain carbohydrates and may raise blood sugar.
Option D: Smoking is a serious health concern but is not a specific risk factor for diabetes. Smokers are 30 to 40 percent more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than nonsmokers. Smoking can also make managing the disease and regulating insulin levels more difficult because high levels of nicotine can lessen the effectiveness of insulin, causing smokers to need more insulin to regulate blood sugar levels.

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