Diabetes Mellitus Q 20 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Friday, 8 April 2022

Diabetes Mellitus Q 20

Which of the following diabetes drugs acts by decreasing the amount of glucose produced by the liver?
    A. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
    B. Biguanides
    C. Meglitinides
    D. Sulfonylureas

Correct Answer: B. Biguanides

Biguanides, such as metformin, lower blood glucose by reducing the amount of glucose produced by the liver. Metformin is a biguanide drug that reduces blood glucose levels by decreasing glucose production in the liver, decreasing intestinal absorption, and increasing insulin sensitivity.

Option A: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors block the breakdown of starches and some sugars, which helps to reduce blood glucose levels. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors competitively inhibit alpha-glucosidase enzymes in the intestinal brush border cells that digest the dietary starch, thus inhibiting the polysaccharide reabsorption and the metabolism of sucrose to glucose and fructose.
Option C: Meglitinides exert their effects via different pancreatic beta-cell receptors, but they act similarly to sulfonylureas by regulating adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in pancreatic beta cells, thereby causing an increase in insulin secretion.
Option D: Sulfonylureas bind to adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATP channels) in the beta cells of the pancreas; this leads to the inhibition of those channels and alters the resting membrane potential of the cell, causing an influx of calcium and the stimulation of insulin secretion.

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