Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 57 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Friday 22 April 2022

Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 57

A male adult client is suspected of having a pulmonary embolism. A nurse assesses the client, knowing that which of the following is a common clinical manifestation of pulmonary embolism?
     A. Dyspnea
     B. Bradypnea
     C. Bradycardia
     D. Decreased respirations

Correct Answer: A. Dyspnea

The common clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are tachypnea, tachycardia, dyspnea, and chest pain. PE leads to impaired gas exchange due to obstruction of the pulmonary vascular bed leading to a mismatch in the ventilation to perfusion ratio because alveolar ventilation remains the same, but pulmonary capillary blood flow decreases, effectively leading to dead space ventilation and hypoxemia.

Option B: The most common symptoms of PE include the following: dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, cough, hemoptysis, presyncope, or syncope. Dyspnea may be acute and severe in central PE, whereas it is often mild and transient in small peripheral PE.
Option C: If a patient with PE who has tachycardia on presentation develops sudden bradycardia or develops a new broad complex tachycardia (with right bundle branch block), providers should look for signs of right ventricular strain and possible impending shock.
Option D: On examination, patients with PE might have tachypnea and tachycardia, which are common but nonspecific findings. Other examination findings include calf swelling, tenderness, erythema, palpable cords, pedal edema, rales, decreased breath sounds, signs of pulmonary hypertension such as elevated neck veins, loud P2 component of second heart sound, a right-sided gallop, and a right ventricular parasternal lift might be present on examination.

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