Asthma and COPD Q 52 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Saturday 23 April 2022

Asthma and COPD Q 52

A nurse is caring for a client with diabetic ketoacidosis and documents that the client is experiencing Kussmaul’s respirations. Based on this documentation, which of the following did the nurse observe?
     A. Respirations that are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate.
     B. Respirations that are regular but abnormally slow.
     C. Respirations that are labored and increased in depth and rate.
     D. Respirations that cease for several seconds.

Correct Answer: A. Respirations that are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate.

Kussmaul’s respirations are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate. Kussmaul respiratory pattern occurs due to increased tidal volume with or without an increased respiratory rate. It is a form of hyperventilation. It results from stimulation of the respiratory center in the brain stem by low serum pH. The effect is the lowering of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli, thereby compensating for metabolic acidosis.

Option B: Bradypnea is an abnormally slow breathing rate. The normal breathing rate for an adult is typically between 12 and 20 breaths per minute. A respiration rate below 12 or over 25 breaths per minute while resting may signal an underlying health problem.
Option C: Tachypnea is a respiratory rate that is greater than the normal for age. Tachypnea is a condition that refers to rapid breathing. The normal breathing rate for an average adult is 12 to 20 breaths per minute. In children, the number of breaths per minute can be a higher resting rate than seen in adults. Tachypnea is a term used to define rapid and shallow breathing, which should not be confused with hyperventilation, which is when a patient’s breathing is rapid but deep.
Option D: Cheyne-Stokes is a pattern of crescendo-decrescendo respirations followed by a period of apnea. This pattern of breathing was first described by John Cheyne, a British Physician and William Stokes, an Irish Physician. It is well described in patients with heart failure. Usually observed while asleep and is the result of disordered central control of breathing. Its presence has implications for outcome in that cardiac resynchronization therapy improves outcomes in patients with Cheyne-Stokes Respirations.

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