Asthma and COPD Q 40 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Saturday 23 April 2022

Asthma and COPD Q 40

A male client admitted to an acute care facility with pneumonia is receiving supplemental oxygen, 2 L/minute via nasal cannula. The client’s history includes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronary artery disease. Because of these history findings, the nurse closely monitors the oxygen flow and the client’s respiratory status. Which complication may arise if the client receives a high oxygen concentration?
     A. Apnea
     B. Anginal pain
     C. Respiratory alkalosis
     D. Metabolic acidosis

Correct Answer: A. Apnea

Hypoxia is the main breathing stimulus for a client with COPD. Excessive oxygen administration may lead to apnea by removing that stimulus. During apnea, there is no movement of the muscles of inhalation, and the volume of the lungs initially remains unchanged. Depending on how blocked the airways are, there may or may not be a flow of gas between the lungs and the environment.

Option B: Anginal pain results from a reduced myocardial oxygen supply. A client with COPD may have anginal pain from generalized vasoconstriction secondary to hypoxia; however, administering oxygen at any concentration dilates blood vessels, easing anginal pain.
Option C: Respiratory alkalosis results from alveolar hyperventilation, not excessive oxygen administration. In a client with COPD, high oxygen concentrations decrease the ventilatory drive, leading to respiratory acidosis, not alkalosis.
Option D: High oxygen concentrations don’t cause metabolic acidosis. Determining the type of metabolic acidosis can help clinicians narrow down the cause of the disturbance. Acidemia refers to a pH less than the normal range of 7.35 to 7.45. In addition, metabolic acidosis requires a bicarbonate value less than 24 mEq/L. Further classification of metabolic acidosis is based on the presence or absence of an anion gap, or concentration of unmeasured serum anions.

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