Asthma and COPD Q 13 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Sunday 24 April 2022

Asthma and COPD Q 13

A 69-year-old client appears thin and cachectic. He’s short of breath at rest and his dyspnea increases with the slightest exertion. His breath sounds are diminished even with deep inspiration. These signs and symptoms fit which of the following conditions?
     A. ARDS
     B. Asthma
     C. Chronic obstructive bronchitis
     D. Emphysema

Correct Answer: D. Emphysema

In emphysema, the wall integrity of the individual air sacs is damaged, reducing the surface area available for gas exchange. Very little air movement occurs in the lungs because of bronchial collapse, as well. In the early stages of the disease, the physical examination may be normal. Patients with emphysema are typically referred to as “pink puffers,” meaning cachectic and non-cyanotic. Expiration through pursed lips increases airway pressure and prevents airway collapse during respiration, and the use of accessory muscles of respiration indicates advanced disease.

Option A: In ARDS, the client’s condition is more acute and typically requires mechanical ventilation. Clients with ARDS are acutely short of breath and require emergency care. The physical examination will include findings associated with the respiratory system, such as tachypnea and increased effort to breathe. Systemic signs may also be evident depending on the severity of illness, such as central or peripheral cyanosis resulting from hypoxemia, tachycardia, and altered mental status. Despite 100% oxygen, patients have low oxygen saturation.
Option B: In asthma, wheezing is prevalent. Patients will usually give a history of a wheeze or a cough, exacerbated by allergies, exercise, and cold. There is often diurnal variation, with symptoms being worse at night. There may be some mild chest pain associated with acute exacerbations. Many asthmatics have nocturnal coughing spells but appear normal in the daytime.
Option C: The most common symptom of patients with chronic bronchitis is a cough. The history of a cough typical of chronic bronchitis is characterized to be present for most days in a month lasting for 3 months with at least 2 such episodes occurring for 2 years in a row. A productive cough with sputum is present in about 50% of patients.

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