Asthma and COPD Q 1 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Sunday 24 April 2022

Asthma and COPD Q 1

An elderly client with pneumonia may appear with which of the following symptoms first?
     A. Altered mental status and dehydration
     B. Fever and chills
     C. Hemoptysis and dyspnea
     D. Pleuritic chest pain and cough

Correct Answer: A. Altered mental status and dehydration

Fever, chills, hemoptysis, dyspnea, cough, and pleuritic chest pain are the common symptoms of pneumonia, but elderly clients may first appear with only an altered mental status and dehydration due to a blunted immune response. Pneumonia is a common cause of mortality and morbidity. It can have a myriad of clinical presentations and can pose a diagnostic dilemma especially in the setting of severely ill patients with several comorbidities and underlying lung pathologies.

Option B: Historically, the chief complaints in case of pneumonia include systemic signs like fever with chills, malaise, loss of appetite, and myalgias. These findings are more common in viral pneumonia as compared to bacterial pneumonia.
Option C: Pulmonary findings include cough with or without sputum production. Bacterial pneumonia is associated with purulent or rarely blood-tinged sputum. Viral pneumonia is associated with watery or occasionally mucopurulent sputum production.
Option D: There may be an associated pleuritic chest pain with the concomitant involvement of the pleura. Dyspnea and a diffuse heaviness of the chest are also seen occasionally. Complications of untreated or under-treated pneumonia include respiratory failure, sepsis, metastatic infections, empyema, lung abscess, and multi-organ dysfunction.

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