Fluid & Electrolyte Q 98 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Monday 28 March 2022

Fluid & Electrolyte Q 98

John Reid is admitted to the hospital and is currently receiving hypertonic fluids. Nursing management for the client includes monitoring for all of the following potential complications except:
    A. Water intoxication
    B. Fluid volume excess (FVE)
    C. Cellular dehydration
    D. Cell shrinkage

Correct Answer: A. Water intoxication

Water intoxication is a potential complication associated with hypotonic fluid administration. Water intoxication provokes disturbances in electrolyte balance, resulting in a rapid decrease in serum sodium concentration and eventual death. The development of acute dilutional hyponatremia causes neurological symptoms because of the movement of water into the brain cells, in response to the fall in extracellular osmolality. Other choices are potential complications of hypertonic fluid administration.

Option B: Fluid Volume Excess (FVE), or hypervolemia, refers to an isotonic expansion of the ECF due to an increase in total body sodium content and an increase in total body water. This fluid overload usually occurs from compromised regulatory mechanisms for sodium and water as seen commonly in heart failure (CHF), kidney failure, and liver failure.
Option C: Water moves from inside the cells to the bloodstream to maintain the needed amount of blood (blood volume) and blood pressure. If dehydration continues, tissues of the body begin to dry out, and cells begin to shrivel and malfunction.
Option D: Cell shrinkage, or the loss of cell volume, is a ubiquitous characteristic of programmed cell death that is observed in all examples of apoptosis, independent of the death stimulus. This decrease in cell volume occurs in synchrony with other classical features of apoptosis.

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