Fluid & Electrolyte Q 57 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Tuesday 29 March 2022

Fluid & Electrolyte Q 57

Which of the following conditions is an equal decrease of extracellular fluid (ECF) solute and water volume?
    A. Hypotonic FVD
    B. Isotonic FVD
    C. Hypertonic FVD
    D. Isotonic FVE

Correct Answer: B. Isotonic FVD

Isotonic FVD involves an equal decrease in solute concentration and water volume. ISOTONIC FLUID VOLUME deficit is a proportionate loss of sodium and water. Characterized by decreased extracellular fluid, including decreased circulating blood volume, isotonic fluid volume deficit results in signs and symptoms of dehydration. Common causes include vomiting, diarrhea, and polyuria.

Option A: Hypotonic dehydration occurs when sodium loss is greater than water loss, resulting in a decrease in serum osmolality. This causes a shift of water from the extracellular space into the intracellular space. The cells swell and cerebral edema may occur. Hyponatremia can be acute or chronic.
Option C: Hypertonic dehydration occurs when water excretion from the body exceeds that of sodium excretion, resulting in increased sodium concentration in the extracellular fluid (hypernatremia). Blood osmolality is increased, causing water to shift from the intracellular to the extracellular space.
Option D: The excess of both solutes and water, which is also termed isotonic volume excess. The additional fluid is retained in the extracellular compartment resulting in fluid accumulation in the interstitial spaces.

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