EENT and Sleep Disorders Q 34 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Tuesday 22 March 2022

EENT and Sleep Disorders Q 34

Which of the following sleep disorders is the most prevalent?
     A. Hypersomnia
     B. Insomnia
     C. Parasomnia
     D. Sleep-wake schedule disturbance.

Correct Answer: B. Insomnia

Approximately 1/3 of American adults have some type of sleep disorder, and insomnia is the most common. Insomnia is prevalent in 10% to 15% of the general population. Roughly 5.5 million office visits related to sleep disturbances were reported in the United States in 2010. Though it affects all age groups, it is more prevalent in women of perimenopausal and post-menopausal transitions and older adults.

Option A: Hypersomnia is generally seen in adolescents or young adults. The patients with hypersomnia complain of disabling excessive daytime sleepiness. They find it difficult to maintain alertness during the major waking hours of the day with sleep occurring unintentionally or at inappropriate times that interfere with the daily routine.
Option C: Sleepwalking is more common in children than in adults. Experts estimate that roughly 15% of children will experience at least one sleepwalking episode; however, by adolescence, most will outgrow this disorder, diminishing the prevalence to just 2 to 4%. Sleep terrors are much less common in the pediatric population, with estimations as low as 3%. Nightmare disorder affects up to 6% of the population.
Option D: Advanced sleep phase syndrome is a circadian rhythm disorder characterized by an inability to stay awake in the evening (usually after 7 pm). These patients complain of early morning insomnia due to their early bedtime. Delayed sleep phase syndrome is also a circadian rhythm disorder in which the affected individuals generally go to bed and usually arise two or more hours late than the desired time. These patients often complain of sleep-onset insomnia and excessive morning sleepiness.

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