EENT and Sleep Disorders Q 28 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Wednesday 23 March 2022

EENT and Sleep Disorders Q 28

Pediatric and geriatric patients often react with more sensitivity to CNS depressants. This type of sensitivity manifests itself in the development of which type of reaction?
     A. Idiopathic
     B. Teratogenic
     C. Paradoxical
     D. Psychogenic

Correct Answer: C. Paradoxical

Benzodiazepines frequently are administered to patients to induce sedation. Paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines, characterized by increased talkativeness, emotional release, excitement, and excessive movement, are relatively uncommon and occur in less than 1% of patients.

Option A: Idiosyncratic drug reactions are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for patients; they also markedly increase the uncertainty of drug development. The major targets are skin, liver, and bone marrow. Clinical characteristics suggest that IDRs are immune-mediated, and there is substantive evidence that most, but not all, IDRs are caused by chemically reactive species.
Option B: A teratogen is an agent that can disturb the development of the embryo or fetus. Teratogens halt the pregnancy or produce a congenital malformation (a birth defect). Classes of teratogens include radiation, maternal infections, chemicals, and drugs.
Option D: Several pharmacological treatments used in internal medicine can induce psychiatric side effects (PSEs) that mimic diagnoses seen in psychiatry. PSEs may occur upon withdrawal or intoxication, and also at usual therapeutic doses.

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