Reproductive System Disorders Q 50 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Sunday 3 April 2022

Reproductive System Disorders Q 50

Nurse Harry is aware that the following is an appropriate nursing diagnosis for a client with renal calculi?
    A. Ineffective tissue perfusion
    B. Functional urinary incontinence
    C. Risk for infection
    D. Decreased cardiac output

Correct Answer: C. Risk for infection

Infection can occur with renal calculi from urine stasis caused by obstruction. When kidney stones remain inside the body, complications can develop. If they block the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder, urine will not be able to pass out of the body. This dysfunction increases the risk of a UTI or kidney infection.

Option A: Option A isn’t appropriate for this diagnosis. The association between nephrolithiasis and subclinical atherosclerosis was recently investigated within the Coronary Adult Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort, which identified a significant association between kidney stones and carotid artery atherosclerosis, even after adjusting for known major atherosclerotic risk factors.
Option B: Retention of urine usually occurs, rather than incontinence. Urinary retention can be attributed to two causes — either obstruction or non-obstruction. If there is an obstruction (for example, bladder or kidney stones), a blockage occurs and urine cannot flow unimpeded through your urinary tract. This is the basis for acute urinary retention and is potentially life-threatening.
Option D: At the root of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis is the physiochemical formation of urinary stones. As the glomerular filtrate passes through the nephron, the urine becomes concentrated with stone-forming salts which, when supersaturated, can precipitate out of solution into crystals that can either be expulsed with voided urine or grow and aggregate under the relative influences of various stone-promoting or stone-inhibiting agents, resulting in stone formation.

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