Myocardial Infarction & Peripheral Vascular Diseases Q 23 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Monday 25 April 2022

Myocardial Infarction & Peripheral Vascular Diseases Q 23

A client who had cardiac surgery 24 hours ago has a urine output averaging 19 ml/hr for 2 hours. The client received a single bolus of 500 ml of IV fluid. Urine output for the subsequent hour was 25 ml. Daily laboratory results indicate the blood urea nitrogen is 45 mg/dL and the serum creatinine is 2.2 mg/dL. A nurse interprets the client is at risk for:
     A. Hypovolemia
     B. UTI
     C. Glomerulonephritis
     D. Acute renal failure

Correct Answer: D. Acute renal failure

The client who undergoes cardiac surgery is at risk for renal injury from poor perfusion, hemolysis, low cardiac output, or vasopressor medication therapy. Renal insult is signaled by decreased urine output and increased BUN and creatinine levels. The client may need medications such as dopamine (Intropin) to increase renal perfusion and possibly could need peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis.

Option A: Clinical signs, such as hypotension, tachycardia, and dry oral membranes, along with laboratory findings, such as blood urea nitrogen, serum and urine sodium, hematocrit, and blood gas measurements, help to elucidate the underlying etiology of hypovolemia. The simplest and fastest means of evaluating hypovolemia remains arterial blood pressure measuring.
Option B: Remember that in patients with symptoms of UTI, a negative dipstick does not rule out UTI, but positive findings can help make the diagnosis. Look for the presence of bacteria and/or white blood cells (WBC) in the urine. A good urine sample with greater than 5 to 10 WBC/HPF is abnormal and highly suggestive of UTI in symptomatic patients.
Option C: As the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is decreased, symptoms like edema and hypertension occur, majorly due to the subsequent salt and water retention caused by the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

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