Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 219 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Tuesday 12 April 2022

Gastrointestinal System Disorders Q 219

The nurse would monitor for which of the following adverse reactions to aluminum-containing antacids such as aluminum hydroxide (Amphojel)?
    A. Diarrhea
    B. Constipation
    C. GI upset
    D. Fluid retention

Correct Answer: B. Constipation

Aluminum- and calcium-containing antacids cause constipation. The primary side effects of aluminum hydroxide include hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia, constipation, and anemia. Additionally, due to its ability to stimulate the immune system, there have been observed cases of persistent granulomas at the injection site of vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide.

Option A: Magnesium-containing antacids cause diarrhea. Antacids that contain magnesium have a laxative effect that may cause diarrhea, and in patients with renal failure, they may cause increased magnesium levels in the blood, because of the reduced ability of the kidneys to eliminate magnesium from the body in the urine.
Option C: Antacids work by counteracting (neutralizing) the acid in the stomach. They do this because the chemicals in antacids are bases (alkalis) which are the opposite of acids. A reaction between an acid and base is called neutralization. This neutralization makes the stomach contents less corrosive.
Option D: Sodium-containing antacids cause sodium and fluid retention. High-dose antacid intake may lead to fluid retention in the body depending on the sodium content of the different antacid preparations. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion provokes metabolic alkalosis and alkalemia, the “nonsystemic calcium, and magnesium-containing antacids” cause these changes too, but to a lower degree.

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