Endocrine System Disorders Q 1 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Sunday 10 April 2022

Endocrine System Disorders Q 1

An agitated, confused female client arrives in the emergency department. Her history includes type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and angina pectoris. Assessment reveals pallor, diaphoresis, headache, and intense hunger. A stat blood glucose sample measures 42 mg/dl, and the client is treated for an acute hypoglycemic reaction. After recovery, the nurse teaches the client to treat hypoglycemia by ingesting:
    A. 2 to 5 g of a simple carbohydrate.
    B. 10 to 15 g of a simple carbohydrate.
    C. 18 to 20 g of a simple carbohydrate.
    D. 25 to 30 g of a simple carbohydrate.

Correct Answer: B. 10 to 15 g of a simple carbohydrate.

To reverse hypoglycemia, the American Diabetes Association recommends ingesting 10 to 15 g of a simple carbohydrate, such as three to five pieces of hard candy, two to three packets of sugar (4 to 6 tsp), or 4 oz of fruit juice. If necessary, this treatment can be repeated in 15 minutes. Patients should be advised to wear a medical alert bracelet and to carry a glucose source like gel, candy, or tablets on their person in case symptoms arise.

Option A: Ingesting only 2 to 5 g of a simple carbohydrate may not raise the blood glucose level sufficiently. Glucose is the primary metabolic fuel for the brain under physiologic conditions. Unlike other tissues of the body, the brain is very limited in supplying its glucose. Expectedly, the brain requires a steady supply of arterial glucose for adequate metabolic function.
Option C: Ingesting more than 15 g may raise it above normal, causing hyperglycemia. For conscious patients able to take oral (PO) medications, readily absorbable carbohydrate sources (such as fruit juice) should be given. For patients unable to take oral agents, a 1-mg intramuscular (IM) injection of glucagon can be administered.
Option D: Once the patient is more awake, a complex carbohydrate food source should be given to the patient to achieve sustained euglycemia. More frequent blood glucose monitoring should occur to rule out further drops in blood sugar.

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