Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 14 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Saturday, 23 April 2022

Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 14

When developing a discharge plan to manage the care of a client with COPD, the nurse should anticipate that the client will do which of the following?
     A. Develop infections easily.
     B. Maintain current status.
     C. Require less supplemental oxygen.
     D. Show permanent improvement.

Correct Answer: A. Develop infections easily.

A client with COPD is at high risk for development of respiratory infections. In emphysema, an irritant (e.g., smoking) causes an inflammatory response. Neutrophils and macrophages are recruited and release multiple inflammatory mediators. Oxidants and excess proteases leading to the destruction of the air sacs. The protease-mediated destruction of elastin leads to a loss of elastic recoil and results in airway collapse during exhalation.

Option B: COPD is slowly progressive; therefore, maintaining current status is an unrealistic expectation. COPD is an inflammatory condition involving the airways, lung parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature. The process is thought to involve oxidative stress and protease-antiprotease imbalances. Emphysema describes one of the structural changes seen in COPD where there is destruction of the alveolar air sacs (gas-exchanging surfaces of the lungs) leading to obstructive physiology.
Option C: This is an unrealistic expectation. The prognosis of COPD is variable based on adherence to treatment including smoking cessation and avoidance of other harmful gases. Patients with other comorbidities (e.g., pulmonary hypertension, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer) typically have a poorer prognosis. The airflow limitation and dyspnea are usually progressive.
Option D: Treatment may slow progression of the disease, but permanent improvement is highly unlikely. As the disease progresses, impairment of gas exchange is often seen. The reduction in ventilation or increase in physiologic dead space leads to CO2 retention. Pulmonary hypertension may occur due to diffuse vasoconstriction from hypoxemia.

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