Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 76 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Thursday 21 April 2022

Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 76

A client with COPD has developed secondary polycythemia. Which nursing diagnosis would be included in the plan of care because of the polycythemia?
     A. Fluid volume deficit related to blood loss.
     B. Impaired tissue perfusion related to thrombosis.
     C. Activity intolerance related to dyspnea.
     D. Risk for infection related to suppressed immune response.

Correct Answer: B. Impaired tissue perfusion related to thrombosis.

Chronic hypoxia associated with COPD may stimulate excessive RBC production (polycythemia). This results in increased blood viscosity and the risk of thrombosis. The other nursing diagnoses are not applicable in this situation. The most common causes of secondary polycythemia include obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Option A: In secondary polycythemia, the number of red blood cells (RBCs) is increased as a result of an underlying condition. Secondary polycythemia would more accurately be called secondary erythrocytosis or erythrocythemia, as those terms specifically denote increased red blood cells. No blood loss is evident in the stem.
Option C: Increased red blood cell mass increases blood viscosity and decreases tissue perfusion. With impaired circulation to the central nervous system, patients may present with headaches, lethargy, and confusion or more serious presentations, such as stroke and obtundation.
Option D: Plethora manifests as increased redness of the skin and mucosal membranes. This finding is easier to detect on the palms or soles, where the skin is light in dark-skinned individuals. Some patients may have acrocyanosis caused by sluggish blood flow through small blood vessels.

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