Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 18 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Saturday, 23 April 2022

Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 18

Which of the following physical assessment findings would the nurse expect to find in a client with advanced COPD?
     A. Increased anteroposterior chest diameter.
     B. Underdeveloped neck muscles.
     C. Collapsed neck veins.
     D. Increased chest excursions with respiration.

Correct Answer: A. Increased anteroposterior chest diameter.

Increased anteroposterior chest diameter is characteristic of advanced COPD. Air is trapped in the overextended alveoli, and the ribs are fixed in an inspiratory position. The result is the typical barrel-chested appearance. In addition, coarse crackles beginning with inspiration may be heard.

Option B: Overly developed, not underdeveloped, neck muscles are associated with COPD because of their increased use in the work of breathing. Use of accessory respiratory muscles and paradoxical indrawing of lower intercostal spaces is evident (known as the Hoover sign).
Option C: Distended, not collapsed, neck veins are associated with COPD as a symptom of the heart failure that the client may experience secondary to the increased workload on the heart to pump into pulmonary vasculature. In advanced disease, cyanosis, elevated jugular venous pulse (JVP), and peripheral edema can be observed.
Option D: Diminished, not increased, chest excursion is associated with COPD. The sensitivity of a physical examination in detecting mild to moderate COPD is relatively poor; however, physical signs are quite specific and sensitive for severe disease. Patients with severe disease experience tachypnea and respiratory distress with simple activities.

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