Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 91 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Thursday 21 April 2022

Comprehensive Respiratory System Disorders Q 91

A male client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is recovering from a myocardial infarction. Because the client is extremely weak and can’t produce an effective cough, the nurse should monitor closely for:
     A. Pleural effusion
     B. Pulmonary edema
     C. Atelectasis
     D. Oxygen toxicity

Correct Answer: C. Atelectasis

In a client with COPD, an ineffective cough impedes secretion removal. This, in turn, causes mucus plugging, which leads to localized airway obstruction — a known cause of atelectasis. Adults with COPD have extensive collateral ventilation secondary to airway destruction and thus are less likely to develop resorption atelectasis in the presence of an obstructing lesion (i.e., intrathoracic tumor). The use of high inspiratory oxygen concentration (high FiO2) during induction and maintenance of general anesthesia also contributes to atelectasis via absorption atelectasis.

Option A: An ineffective cough doesn’t cause pleural effusion (fluid accumulation in the pleural space). Common causes of transudates include conditions that alter the hydrostatic or oncotic pressures in the pleural space like congestive left heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, liver cirrhosis, hypoalbuminemia leading to malnutrition and the initiation of peritoneal dialysis.
Option B: Pulmonary edema usually results from left-sided heart failure, not an ineffective cough. Although many noncardiac conditions may cause pulmonary edema, an ineffective cough isn’t one of them. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is caused by lung injury with a resultant increase in pulmonary vascular permeability leading to the movement of fluid, rich in proteins, to the alveolar and interstitial compartments.
Option D: Oxygen toxicity results from prolonged administration of high oxygen concentrations, not an ineffective cough. Extended exposure to above-normal oxygen partial pressures, or shorter exposures to very high partial pressures, can cause oxidative damage to cell membranes leading to the collapse of the alveoli in the lungs. Pulmonary effects can present as early as within 24 hours of breathing pure oxygen.

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