Asthma and COPD Q 36 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Saturday, 23 April 2022

Asthma and COPD Q 36

A male client with pneumococcal pneumonia is admitted to an acute care facility. The client in the next room is being treated for mycoplasmal pneumonia. Despite the different causes of the various types of pneumonia, all of them share which feature?
     A. Inflamed lung tissue
     B. Sudden onset
     C. Responsiveness to penicillin.
     D. Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count.

Correct Answer: A. Inflamed lung tissue

The common feature of all types of pneumonia is an inflammatory pulmonary response to the offending organism or agent. A few types of pneumonia, such as viral pneumonia, aren’t treated with antibiotics. There is an intricate balance between the organisms residing in the lower respiratory tract and the local and systemic defense mechanisms (both innate and acquired) which when disturbed gives rise to inflammation of the lung parenchyma, i.e., pneumonia.

Option B: Although most types of pneumonia have a sudden onset, a few (such as anaerobic bacterial pneumonia and mycoplasmal pneumonia) have an insidious onset. While identifying an etiologic agent for pneumonia is essential for effective treatment as well as epidemiological record keeping, this is seldom seen in clinical practice.
Option C: Antibiotic therapy is the primary treatment for most types of pneumonia; however, the antibiotic must be specific for the causative agent, which may not be responsive to penicillin. These patients are treated empirically using Fluoroquinolones or Beta-lactams Macrolides if adverse comorbidities are present and with Macrolides or Doxycycline if no comorbidities are present.
Option D: Although pneumonia usually causes an elevated WBC count, some types, such as mycoplasmal pneumonia, don’t. These include a series of tests like blood culture, sputum culture and microscopy, routine blood counts, and lymphocyte count. Special tests such as urinary antigen testing, bronchial aspirate, or induced sputum may be used for certain pathogens.

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