Fluid & Electrolyte Q 45 - Gyan Darpan : Learning Portal
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Tuesday 29 March 2022

Fluid & Electrolyte Q 45

Which of the following conditions is associated with elevated serum chloride levels?
    A. Cystitis
    B. Diabetes
    C. Eclampsia
    D. Hypertension

Correct Answer: C. Eclampsia

Eclampsia is associated with increased levels of serum chloride. Metabolic alkalosis is uncommon in pregnancy and is most often the result of severe vomiting. If this is present at the time of delivery, transient metabolic derangement in the fetus can occur, potentially requiring additional organ support.

Option A: Urinalysis, when indicated, is the most important laboratory test in the diagnosis of UTI. Pyuria, which is the presence of at least 10 WBCs or leukocytes in an unspun midstream urine specimen, is almost always present. They detect the presence of leukocyte esterase, an enzyme produced by leukocytes, and nitrite, which is indicative of the presence of Enterobacteriaceae.
Option B: Present study showed the importance of measuring serum electrolytes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. As fasting blood glucose rises, electrolytes mainly sodium, chloride, and potassium become more deranged significantly. Also, raised fasting blood glucose worsens renal function, as shown by an increase in microalbumin levels in urine.
Option D: Among the environmental factors that affect blood pressure, dietary sodium chloride has been studied the most, and there is general consensus that increased sodium chloride intake increases blood pressure. The role for NaCl is supported by insights from the pressure-natriuresis mechanism, monogenic forms of hypertension, and dietary salt reduction studies.

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